System Comparison

The publicly-known attributes of ATN systems already in public service are compared with the predicted capabilities of systems under active development. A description of each attribute follows.

2getthere GRT

grt

Vehicle passenger capacity 22
Maximum speed (km/h) 60
Minimum headway (sec) 5.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 15,840
Capital cost/km ($M) 31
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided No
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Public service

2getthere PRT

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 40
Minimum headway (sec) 5.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 2,880
Capital cost/km ($M) 17
Operations cost/pax/km 0.53
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided No
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Public service

Citytram

Vehicle passenger capacity 3
Maximum speed (km/h) 72
Minimum headway (sec) 2.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 5,400
Capital cost/km ($M) 3
Operations cost/pax/km 0.12
Propulsion energy supply Wayside
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Concept

Futran

Vehicle passenger capacity 16
Maximum speed (km/h) 76
Minimum headway (sec) 1.25
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 38,400
Capital cost/km ($M) 6.2
Operations cost/pax/km 0.01
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Glydways

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 50
Minimum headway (sec) 0.50
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 10,800
Capital cost/km ($M) 17
Operations cost/pax/km 0.40
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided No
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

JPods

Vehicle passenger capacity 6
Maximum speed (km/h) 56
Minimum headway (sec) 0.50
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 28,800
Capital cost/km ($M) 9
Operations cost/pax/km 0.04
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Metrino

Vehicle passenger capacity 5
Maximum speed (km/h) 70
Minimum headway (sec) 0.18
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 30,000
Capital cost/km ($M) 10
Operations cost/pax/km 0.02
Propulsion energy supply Wayside
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Modutram

Vehicle passenger capacity 8
Maximum speed (km/h) 80
Minimum headway (sec) 6.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 19,200
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Morgantown

Vehicle passenger capacity 23
Maximum speed (km/h) 48
Minimum headway (sec) 15.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 4,800
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Wayside
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Partially
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Public Service

Ottobahn

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 250
Minimum headway (sec) NA
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 39,250
Capital cost/km ($M) 5
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Wayside
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

skyTran

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 100
Minimum headway (sec) 1.50
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 9,600
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Wayside
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means Proprietary
Technology readiness Development

Supraways

Vehicle passenger capacity 9
Maximum speed (km/h) 130
Minimum headway (sec) 3.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 10,800
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Swift Rails

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 250
Minimum headway (sec) 2.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 7,200
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means NA
Technology readiness Development

Swyft Cities

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 48
Minimum headway (sec) NA
Maximum capacity (pphpd) NA
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply NA
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means NA
Technology readiness Development

Transit X

Vehicle passenger capacity 4
Maximum speed (km/h) 72
Minimum headway (sec) 1.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 86,000
Capital cost/km ($M) 2.7
Operations cost/pax/km 0.02
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Ultra-MTS

Vehicle passenger capacity 6
Maximum speed (km/h) 40
Minimum headway (sec) 6.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 2,400
Capital cost/km ($M) 10
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy supply Battery
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Partially
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Public Service

Ultra PRT

Vehicle passenger capacity 6
Maximum speed (km/h) 100
Minimum headway (sec) 1.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 21,600
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy suppl Battery/Fuel Cell
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Partially
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development (Gen 2)

Urbanloop

Vehicle passenger capacity 2
Maximum speed (km/h) 60
Minimum headway (sec) 1.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 1,000
Capital cost/km ($M) 3
Operations cost/pax/km 0.05
Propulsion energy supply Wayside
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM
Technology readiness Development

Vectus

Vehicle passenger capacity 12
Maximum speed (km/h) 70
Minimum headway (sec) 4.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 10,800
Capital cost/km ($M) NA
Operations cost/pax/km NA
Propulsion energy suppl Wayside
Supported/suspended Supported
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means REM/LIM
Technology readiness Public Service

Vuba

Vehicle passenger capacity 6
Maximum speed (km/h) 100
Minimum headway (sec) 1.00
Maximum capacity (pphpd) 21,600
Capital cost/km ($M) 10
Operations cost/pax/km 0.05
Propulsion energy suppl Battery
Supported/suspended Suspended
Rail guided Yes
Propulsion means LIM
Technology readiness Development

 

Learn more

Connect to the website of each technology listed above by clicking on the name or photograph.

Purpose

There are now numerous different Automated Transit Network (ATN) technologies in public service, under development or conceptual. Each technology has differing attributes making it difficult for a potential owner to choose. This summary comparison attempts to indicate the technologies known to be in public service or under active development, and their primary attributes.

The technologies included are limited to those meeting the ATN definition in the ASCE Automated People Mover Standards ANSI/ASCE/T&DI 21-21: Subset of Automated People Mover that has all stations offline, switching that requires no track-based moving parts and train capacity less than 25 passengers.

The values used for each attribute were obtained from public sources and/or directly from the supplier and may or may not be achievable by the supplier.

Attribute Description/Pros and Cons

Vehicle capacity: The lower the vehicle passenger capacity, the lower the system capacity. The higher the vehicle capacity, the higher the guideway costs and the more the vehicle must stop and start if ridesharing is implemented. Less than 4 passengers prevents some families traveling together and may have limited space for wheelchairs, luggage, bicycles, etc.

Max speed (km/h): The higher the speed, the more passengers are attracted, and the fewer vehicles are required, but station entry and exit ramps get long, and suitably high curve radii are difficult to achieve. Higher speeds may require longer headways. The ASCE Standards only cover speeds up to 100 km/h.

Min headway (sec): This is the time from the passage of a fixed point on one vehicle to the passage of the same point on the following vehicle. The lower the headway, the higher the capacity. Minimum headway may depend on maximum speed.

Max capacity (PPHPD): The theoretical maximum passengers per hour per direction (PPHPD) shown is based on the maximum passenger capacity of each vehicle and the minimum headway, or that claimed by the supplier, whichever is lower. It does consider platooning when claimed. Some systems will struggle to come close to their theoretical maximum capacity.

Capital cost per km (US$M): This is the estimated total cost for an entire project including all aspects. This cost can vary considerably depending on local conditions.

Operating cost/passenger/km (US$): This is the estimated total operating and maintenance cost for carrying one passenger one kilometer

Propulsion energy supply: This indicates the primary means only. Wayside power distribution can allow lighter vehicles.  However, it adds to guideway and vehicle maintenance costs. Battery powered vehicles are heavier, but provide a means of storing energy, potentially allowing vehicles to reach their destination in a total power outage.

Supported/suspended: Suspended systems are slightly more expensive, but the guideway protects the wheels and motors from the weather and hazards like falling branches. Short at-grade stations are facilitated because steep grades are possible while keeping the pods level for passenger comfort. The guideway is better suited to supporting solar panels. The guideway can be narrower and is typically higher up, thus causing less visual intrusion. Supported systems tend to be more economical at grade and more adaptable to potentially leaving the guideway for travel in mixed traffic.

Rail guided: Rail guided systems enable accurate steering that is essential to higher speeds. Rubber-tired vehicles are prone to skidding in adverse weather and can be required to slow down through merges and diverges to meet safety requirements but may be more adaptable to potentially leaving the guideway for travel in mixed traffic.

Propulsion means are either rotary electric motors (REM) or linear induction motors (LIM). However, a supplier could choose to use different means for different conditions. Linear induction motors are typically considered more expensive but better able to control vehicles in all conditions.

Technology readiness: We distinguish only between technology that is in public service, under physical development (evidence exists of significant hardware) or conceptual.